and DIETETICS.
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The diet recommended for athletes, considering all sports, also applies for sports practised in cold environments (refer to article "Diet during competition ").
One common practice, which has proved to be unfounded, was to increase the fat (lipid) intake to provide protection against the cold.
This practice, taken from the animal world, is not suitable for man. A daily diet composed of 30 to 33 % lipids provides all the fat required.
An athlete wearing the correct clothing and moving requires no additional fat intake.

For every athlete, the muscular glycogen reserves allowing the muscles to work are the most important; consequently, the pre-competition instructions regarding the build-up of glycogen also apply in this situation (refer to the article "Scandinavian dissociated diet regime and its derivatives").

To maintain the same temperature in a cold environment, the body burns ¾ of its energy. But this is a constant: irrespective of the exterior temperature (hot or cold), ¾ of the energy expenditure is used for thermoregulation of the body and ¼ is used for muscular contraction.

Sporting events in cold environments may last for a long time, however, and the associated energy expenditure is very high; in this case, the daily food ration must be increased compared with the usual intake.

For information, the energy expenditure is:
Cross-country skiing 1000 kcal / hour
Skiing at a speed of 8 km/h 600 kcal / hour

Insufficient energy intake will cause fatigue during the effort and make recuperation difficult.

The hydric intake must compensate for water losses largely due to breathing (losses due to sweating may be lower than in a more temperate climate).