and DIETETICS.
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There are two categories of vitamins:

  • Hydrosoluble vitamins B1, B2, B5, B6, PP, B8, B9, B12 and C.
  • Liposoluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

In athletes, it is important to prevent vitamin deficiencies generated by the physical activity. Supplementation in athletes with no deficiency is unnecessary, however, and does not improve performance in any way.
In athletes, vitamin deficiencies mainly concern vitamins B1, B2, B6, E and C.

To fully benefit from the vitamins in the food eaten, you are recommended to eat fresh vegetables and/or fruit at each meal; the best cooking method in terms of vitamin loss is steaming (avoid cooking in water if it is not consumed).

ROLE OF VITAMINS in athletes.

B1 Use of glucose and production of ATP (for motricity).
B2 Use of fatty acids, proteins and amino acids.
PP Energy production (by the Krebs cycle).
B6 Use of amino acids and synthesis of proteins; mobilisation of glucose and glycogen (muscle fuels); synthesis of noradrenaline (adaptation to stress), carnitine (use of fats), haemoglobin (oxygen transport).
B9 operation of the nervous system and the immune system; synthesis of proteins.
B12 synthesis of proteins.
C immune defence; healing; anti-oxidising power (cell protection); adaptation to stress.
A growth and visual acuity
E Anti-oxidising power; protection of cell membranes (important during effort at high altitude ).


A liver, egg, milk, butter, vegetables.
B1 yeast, wheat germ, offal, pork, chestnut, whole cereals, cocoa.
B2 yeast, wheat germ, liver, milk, oleaginous products.
B5 offal, meat, fish, egg, cereals, yeast, dry vegetables.
B6 yeast, walnuts, salmon, mackerel, wheat germ, soya, cereals, cocoa.
B8 liver, kidney, yeast, egg white, oleaginous products.
B9 vegetables with green leaves, vegetables, liver, walnuts, egg.
B12 food of animal origin.
C fruit and fresh green vegetables, parsley, exotic fruits, citrus fruits, cocoa.
D yolk, milk, butter, yeast, cheese, fish liver oil, fatty fish..
E vegetable oils, wheat germ, fresh coconut, liver, butter, cocoa, whole cereals.
PP yeast, liver, peanuts, rabbit, tuna, salmon, almonds, wheat germ, brown rice, herring, sardine, soya, whole flour.
K fish meal, pork liver, Russian tea, spinach, cabbage, milk, egg.


Remember that vitamins C and E improve recuperation (thanks to their anti-oxidising power).

For people who train more than 5 times a week, daily consumption of yeast and wheat germ (to be included in the cooking or sprinkled on the food) is an excellent food strategy since these products are rich in vitamins and minerals.
Vitamin supplementation must only be carried out under medical supervision and in some special circumstances.

Caution! Hypervitaminosis may be dangerous,
especially for vitamins A and D .