and DIETETICS.
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Carbohydrates can be divided into several families:
    Simple sugars,
    Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose)

Carbohydrates are important energy components in everyone's food, especially that of the athlete.

They supply 4 kcal per gram of carbohydrates.

The average carbohydrate content must be 50 to 55 % of the daily ration.
    Athletes may increase this figure in some situations.
    Especially with a hyper-glucidic diet designed to build up glycogen in the muscle before competition (refer to the article Scandinavian dissociated diet regime and its derivatives); in this case, the carbohydrate content may reach up to 70 % of the daily ration.

100 g of cooked starchy foods = (20 g of carbohydrates) or 40 g bread or 300 g vegetables or 200 g fruit or 400 ml milk.

Carbohydrates can be subdivided into fast and slow sugars depending on the rate of their intestinal absorption.

For an athlete, the type of carbohydrates consumed depends on the competition date:
    If the competition date is not close, privilege slow carbohydrates to build up the energy reserves.

    If it is close (the day before and in particular the day itself), consume fast carbohydrates which provide energy immediately or in the very short term.

Glucidic foods are said to be fast when the glycaemic index is high.
The glycaemic index of a given food varies depending on the way it is prepared: raw or cooked, whole or chopped, mashed, etc.

Glucidic foods
Fast sugars
Glycaemic index
Glucose 100
Carrot 92
Honey 88
Grapes 85
Corn Flakes 81
Mashed potato 80
Apple juice 75
White rice 73
White bread 72
Steamed potato 70

Glucidic foods
Semi-fast sugars
Glycaemic index
Muesli 67
Brown rice 66
Sugar 65
Wholemeal bread 65
Banana 63
Spaghetti 51
Peas 50

Glucidic foods
Slow sugars
Glycaemic index
Whole wheat pasta 42
Orange 40
Apple 39
Chick peas 36
Milk 25
Lentils 29
Fructose 20
Soya bean sprouts 15