and DIETETICS.
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SODIUM (Na) Sodium determines the value of the blood pressure.
Athletes may suffer from sodium deficiency if the amounts of water they drink are greater than the amounts lost during the effort (sweating, evaporation through the skin, respiratory losses).
To avoid hyponatraemia (very low sodium content), athletes can add a little pinch of sodium chloride (salt) in their "home-made" drinks.
POTASSIUM (K) Potassium plays a role in the transmission of the nervous influx, muscular contraction and in maintaining blood pressure.
After the effort, it is important to restore the potassium reserves by preferably consuming dry fruits, fruit juices and oleaginous fruits (potassium-rich).
PHOSPHORUS (P) Phosphorus is involved in the carbohydrate and lipid conversion processes.
A balanced diet provides the athlete with sufficient phosphorus (in dairy products, meat and fish).
MAGNESIUM (Mg) Magnesium is actively involved in a large number of physiological processes.

Many athletes suffer from magnesium deficiencies since large amounts of magnesium can be lost through sweating, as a result of stress and the wear and tear of intense competition .
To make up for these additional losses, athletes must consume magnesium-rich foods (cocoa, chocolate, spinach, oleaginous fruits, soya, dry vegetables, wholemeal bread).
They will privilege "hard" water (Contrex, Badoit, Hépar).
Care must be taken not to drink too much coffee, which increases these losses!

CALCIUM (Ca) The most important role of calcium is in the bone structure (constant renewal of the bones), but it also participates in muscular contraction.
By consuming suitable quantities of dairy products (3 times a day), athletes cover their calcium requirements.
They must nevertheless pay attention to some foods whose constituents may inhibit calcium assimilation.
The main foods concerned are fibres, proteins, alcohol, oxalic acid (contained in red beetroot, spinach, sorrel, parsley, dry figs, cocoa, tea, beer, etc.).
IRON (Fe) Iron transports the oxygen from the lungs to the tissues in red blood cells.
In athletes, iron deficiencies significantly reduce capability and performance.
Women athletes have higher iron requirements.
Iron deficiencies are mainly due to a diet with insufficient iron.
It is therefore important to choose iron-rich foods (black pudding, liver, lentils, dry vegetables, soya bean sprouts, chocolate, oleaginous fruits, eggs, beef, sea food, etc.).
Iron inhibitors prevent or significantly reduce the assimilation of iron contained in food. For example tea and coffee.
Inversely, activators such as orange juice (due to the vitamin C) protein-rich foods of animal origin (meat, poultry, fish) have the opposite effect..