and DIETETICS.
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Just like food, hydration is a key performance factor which must never be overlooked, especially for athletes.

Athletes too often wait until they are thirsty before they drink.
They then drink large quantities of liquid which may cause unpleasant effects:
Feeling bloated, restriction of respiratory movements, etc.

The quantity of liquid drunk must therefore be adapted to the energy requirements of the sporting activity.
A hydric plan is required to make up for the losses caused by sweating and evaporation through the skin.

Remember that a liquid loss of 2 % of the body weight reduces the performance by 20 %; a loss of 4 % reduces the performance by 40 to 60 %.
Calculate the percentage of water lost during an exercise as follows:
(W1 - W2) x 100/W1 where W1 = weight before in kg and W2 = weight after in kg


Although pure water is the ideal liquid to drink every day, energy drinks are more suitable during periods of effort.
For optimum hydration, a drink for every situation!
However, in view of the wide selection of energy drinks available on the market, you should be able to make the right choice


Every day: pure water in sufficient quantity (at least 2.5 l/d).

Before the effort : during the 2 hours before the effort drink 500 ml of a liquid, at ambient temperature, containing about 15 g/l of low glycaemic index carbohydrates:
    -450 ml water + 50 ml fresh orange juice
    -500 ml water + 8 g fructose
15 minutes before the effort: 200 to 350 ml of a drink containing about 40 g/l of high glycaemic index carbohydrates:
    -300 ml water + 2 sugar lumps
During the effort : every 15 minutes, drink 150 to 200 ml (or more under certain conditions - very hot weather or intensive effort) of a slightly mineralised liquid at ambient temperature containing between 25 and 40 g/l of high glycaemic index carbohydrates (50 to 70 g/l of carbohydrates during an intensive exercise; 100 to 150 g/l of carbohydrates in a cold environment):
    -1 l of water (Volvic, Vittel or Evian, etc.) + juice of 2 lemons + 8 sugar lumps (or 50 g of honey) + 1 pinch of salt (40 g/l of carbohydrates)
    -700 ml of water (idem) + 300 ml of apple juice + 1 pinch of salt (50 g/l of carbohydrates).
After the effort : immediately drink sparkling water containing sodium bicarbonate (Vichy, St Yorre) at ambient temperature.
    *then every 15 minutes (for 2 to 4 hours) drink 150 to 300 ml containing 50 or 70 g/l of carbohydrates (fruit juice diluted with 50 % bicarbonated water)

    *30 minutes before dinner, drink 250 to 500 ml of slightly mineralised water

    *drink water and/or skimmed or half-skimmed milk during the meal after the effort.